## The basic assignment reasoning puzzle needs elementary logic analysis

In this second session on reasoning puzzles for Bank PO exams, the puzzle chosen is a four variable assignment puzzle at basic level where elementary logic analysis is highlighted.

Before going ahead further, you may refer to our earlier tutorial sessions,

**How to solve high level floor stay reasoning puzzles for SBI PO in a few confident steps 4**

**How to solve SBI PO level family relation problems in a few simple steps 3**

**How to solve SBI PO level logic puzzles in a few simple steps 2**

**How to solve SBI PO level logic puzzles in a few simple steps 1**

### Four variable basic assignment Reasoning Puzzle for Bank PO

#### Problem description

Each of 5 persons Anu, Varun, Pintu, Tiku, Vicky likes a different pen among, Pilot, Luxor, Classmate, Link, Uniball, has unique car preferences among, Alto, Indica, Nano, Bolero, Dzire, and likes a different watch among, G shock, Fossil, Guess, Seiko, Casio.

#### Conditional statements

- Anu has Bolero and Pilot but does not prefer any of the watches Fossil and Guess.
- The one who has Indica likes Guess.
- Varun has preferences for Dzire, Uniball and Casio.
- Pintu has preferences for Luxor and G shock.
- Tinku prefers Alto and Link.
- Vicky does not prefer Fossil.

#### Questions

**Question 1.** Which watch is Tinku's preference?

- Seiko
- Guess
- Fossil
- Cannot be determined
- None of these

**Question 2.** Which watch is Anu's preference?

- Fossil
- Seiko
- Guess
- Cannot be determined
- None of these

**Question 3.** Which pen is Vicky's preference?

- Luxor
- Classmate
- Link
- Cannot be determined
- None of these

**Question 4.** Which watch is Vicky's preference?

- Seiko
- Guess
- G shock
- Cannot be determined
- None of these

**Question 5.** Whose preference is Indica?

- Vicky
- Pintu
- Tinku
- Cannot be determined
- None of these

### Solution to the four variable basic assignment Reasoning Puzzle of Bank PO type

#### Logic table representation

Following is the logic table that we will use for solving the problem.

The five persons form the five columns and pens, cars and watches liked by the persons will be recorded in three rows. The "Persons" here are the Primary variable or object set to which liking or attributes of pen, car and watch are to be assigned in such a way that no attribute is liked by more than one person.

In other words, in no row, a value will appear twice or more.

This type of one-to-one assignment is generally used in reasoning puzzles.

Alternately, we could have used a fourth row for persons and just five columns for five values of each object set with no column heading names. But that would have been quite inconvenient to handle. The other advantage of using the column names as person names is, we have the set of names explicitly shown all times. This makes analyzing the condition statements convenient.

No cell will remain empty after we complete analyzing all the conditional statements and we call this form of logic table as **Compact logic analysis table.**

Though a four variable logic assignment problem can be quite complex, small number of conditional statements should pose no difficulty in solving the problem.

Let us get down to the main task of processing the conditional statements with the **sole aim of filling up the empty cells as quickly as possible without any confusion and with complete certainty.**

#### Solution Stage 1: Strategy 1: Direct and certain assignment first

In any assignment puzzle, **Direct certain assignments in the beginning is a "highly preferred" priority**. Without such a direct certain assignment of a secondary member to a position, we won't be able to place any member onto the logic table in the beginning, and further steps will be difficult to carry out.

We qualify this strategy with the additional property of a statement first to be executed as one with **direct and certain assignments of maximum amount or maximum number of cells filled up with certainty.**

We select such a statement and process it first to fill up maximum number of empty cells at one go. The advantage is, the more we fill up the empty cells easier does it become to fill up the rest, as uncertainty reduces.

Following this strategy, we process Statement 3 first (as it assigns three values or fills up three cells with certainty) and Statement 4 and Statement 5 second and third as these are the only two numbers of two degree certainty statements.

In each of the rest of the three statements you will find uncertainties in the form of phrase "not" or in the form of no mention of a member of primary object set of Persons. These involve uncertainties in the "not" part or absence of Person so that that we don't know to whom the secondary objects belong.

Yet, in Statement 1 we find two numbers of certain and direct assignments though it has an uncertain phrase in it. We place the **two certain assignments in corresponding cells and record the uncertainty also in the corresponding cell in this case.**

Till now no logic analysis has been involved, it was straightforward direct assignments following a time-tested strategy.

The following is the logic table after execution of these four statements in Stage 1. We will use the two remaining uncertain Statement 2 and Statement 6 after processing these four statements. These two statements will need some amount of logic analysis.

**Solution Stage 2: Certain placement of uncertain condition strategy**

At this stage, out of the two remaining statements we will process Statement 6 first as it refers to a specific person and hence we are able to record the uncertainty "Vicky does not prefer Fossil." in the short form of "not Fossil" in a specific cell, Vicky--Watch. For the Statement 2 we couldn't do this.

We call this strategy as, "* Certain placement of uncertain condition first*". When no better action is available, this strategy is adopted to achieve certain filling up of a cell, even with an uncertain condition.

Let us show the status of the resulting logic table after this Stage 2 processing.

**Solution Stage 3: Certain placement by conflict, elementary logic analysis**

When we process last Statement 2. "The one who has Indica likes Guess.", for the first time we do **elementary logic analysis.**

To state in expanded form,

Out of two empty cells where we can place car Indica, watch for Pintu is already G shock and so it cannot be Guess. Thus we have to place car Indica in the only possible cell of car against Vicky and watch Guess along with it for the same Vicky as there is no conflict of placing watch Guess for Vicky."

The logic table after Stage 3 is shown below.

We have processed all the logic conditions but still three cells are empty and one cell is uncertain. To solve the problem we must fill up all the empty and uncertain cells with certain values. We will do this now with the second set of elementary logic analysis.

#### Solution final stage: second set of elementary logic analysis

First we assign the only left out pen Classmate to the only empty cell against Vicky in the Pen row. We call this strategy * Principle of exclusion*. It is simple and straightforward.

In the same way Pintu gets the left out car Nano. These two assignments are easy. Now we will carry out the* last elementary logic analysis* to fill up the last two empty watch cells,

Out of the two left out watches Seiko and Guess, as Anu does not prefer Fossil or Guess, Seiko to Anu poses no conflict and Anu gets Seiko with certainty, and so Tinku gets the last left out watch Fossil with certainty to solve the assignment problem fully.

The solved logic table is shown below.

Now we are ready to answer the questions and it should take only about a minute's time to answer the five questions.

#### Answers to the questions

**Question 1.** Which watch is Tinku's preference?

Answer 1. Option 3: Fossil.

**Question 2.** Which watch is Anu's preference?

Answer 2. Option 2: Seiko.

**Question 3.** Which pen is Vicky's preference?

Answer 3. Option 2: Classmate.

**Question 4.** Which watch is Vicky's preference?

Answer 4. Option 2: Guess.

**Question 5.** Whose preference is Indica?

Answer 5. Option 1: Vicky.

*With four sets of objects it could have been a much harder puzzle if given conditions wouldn't have made so many direct assignments so that number of logic conditions required became only six. Nevertheless, elementary logic analysis which is the foundation of all logic analysis, had to be carried out for solving the puzzle along with identifying useful patterns and using appropriate methods.*

### Other resources for learning how to discover useful patterns and solve logic analysis problems

#### Einstein's puzzle or Einstein's riddle

The puzzle popularly known as Einstein's puzzle or Einstein's riddle is a six object set assignment logic analysis problem. Going through the problem and its efficient solution using collapsed column logic analysis technique in the session * Method based solution of Einstein's logic analysis puzzle whose fish* should be a good learning experience.

#### Playing Sudoku

As a powerful method of * enhancing useful pattern identification and logic analysis skill*, play

**Sudoku**in a controlled manner. But beware, this great learning game, popularly called Rubik's Cube of 21st Century, is addictive.

To learn how to play Sudoku, you may refer to our **Sudoku pages***starting from the very beginning and proceeding to hard level games.*

### Reading list on SBI PO and Other Bank PO level Reasoning puzzles

#### Tutorials

**How to solve SBI PO level logic puzzles in a few simple steps 1**

** How to solve SBI PO level logic puzzles in a few simple steps 2 **

**How to solve SBI PO level family relation problems in a few simple steps 3**

**How to solve SBI PO level floor stay Reasoning Puzzle in a few confident steps 4**

**How to solve high level circular seating reasoning puzzles for SBI PO in confident steps 5**

**How to solve high level hard two row seating reasoning puzzles for SBI PO in confident steps 6**

**How to solve high level circular seating arrangement reasoning puzzles for SBI PO quickly 7**

**How to solve high level circular seating reasoning puzzles for SBI PO quickly 8**

**How to solve high level box positioning reasoning puzzle for SBI PO quickly 9**

#### Solved reasoning puzzles SBI PO type

**SBI PO type high level floor stay reasoning puzzle solved in a few confident steps 1**

**SBI PO type high level reasoning puzzle solved in a few confident steps 2**

**SBI PO type high level reasoning puzzle solved in a few confident steps 3**

**SBI PO type high level circular seating reasoning puzzle solved in confident steps 4**

**SBI PO type high level hard reasoning puzzle solved in confident steps 5**

**SBI PO type high level one to many valued group based reasoning puzzle solved in confident steps 6**

**SBI PO type high level hard two in one circular seating reasoning puzzle solved in confident steps 7**

**SBI PO type hard facing away circular seating reasoning puzzle solved in confident steps 8**

**SBI PO type high level four dimensional reasoning puzzle solved in confident steps 9**

**SBI PO type hard two row seating reasoning puzzle solved in confident steps 10 **

**SBI PO type high level floor stay reasoning puzzle solved in confident steps 11**

#### Solved reasoning puzzles Bank PO type

**Bank PO type two row hybrid reasoning puzzle solved in confident steps 1**

**Bank PO type four variable basic assignment reasoning puzzle solved in a few steps 2**

**Bank PO type basic floor based reasoning puzzle solved in a few steps 3**

**Bank PO type high level floor stay reasoning puzzle solved in quick steps 4**